A[ edit ] abiotic - non-living chemical and physical factors of the environment see also biotic. The traditional Western environmentally unfriendly high consumption life-style: Unreflected light is converted to infrared radiation heatwhich causes atmospheric warming see "radiative forcing".
Purpose[ edit ] The purpose of the NEPA is to promote informed decision-making by federal agencies by making "detailed information concerning significant environmental impacts" available to both agency leaders and the public.
It also encourages communication and cooperation between all the actors involved in environmental decisions, including government officials, private businesses, and citizens.
An EIS should be created in a timely manner as soon as the agency is planning development or is presented with a proposal for development. The statement should use an interdisciplinary approach so that it accurately assesses both the physical and social impacts of the proposed development.
These factors may include actions that receive federal funding, federal licensing or authorization, or that are subject to federal control. If the action may or may not cause a significant impact, the agency can first prepare a smaller, shorter document called an Environmental Assessment EA.
If the EA indicates that no significant impact is likely, then the agency can release a finding of no significant impact FONSI and carry on with the proposed action. Otherwise, the agency must then conduct a full-scale EIS. A CATEX is usually permitted when a course of action is identical or very similar to a past course of action and the impacts on the environment from the previous action can be assumed for the proposed action, or for building a structure within the footprint of an existing, larger facility or complex.
For example, two proposed sections of Interstate 69 in Kentucky were granted a CATEX from NEPA requirements as these portions of I will be routed over existing freeways requiring little more than minor spot improvements and a change of highway signage.
The intent of NEPA is to help key decisionmakers and stakeholders balance the need to implement an action with its impacts on the surrounding human and natural environment, and provide opportunities for mitigating those impacts while keeping the cost and schedule for implementing the action under control.
However, many activities require various federal permits to comply with other environmental legislation, such as the Clean Air Actthe Clean Water ActEndangered Species Act and Section 4 f of the Federal Highway Act to name a few.
Similarly, many states and local jurisdictions have enacted environmental laws and ordinances, requiring additional state and local permits before the action can proceed. An EIS typically has four sections: A description of the Affected Environment.
A Range of Alternatives to the proposed action.
Alternatives are considered the "heart" of the EIS. An analysis of the environmental impacts of each of the possible alternatives. This section covers topics such as: Impacts to threatened or endangered species Air and water quality impacts Impacts to historic and cultural sites, particularly sites of significant importance to Indigenous peoples.
Social and Economic impacts to local communities, often including consideration of attributes such as impacts to available housing stock, economic impacts to businesses, property values, aesthetics and noise within the affected area Cost and Schedule Analyses for each alternative, including costs and timeline to mitigate expected impacts, to determine if the proposed action can be completed at a acceptable cost and within a reasonable amount of time While not required in the EIS, the following subjects may be included as part of the EIS or as separate documents based on agency policy.
Financial Plan for the proposed action identifying the sources of secured funding for the action.A knowledge of how to manage environments, whether they be our forests, river catchments or oceans is crucial to influencing the sustainability of our future.
This combined degree brings together the terrestrial aspects of environmental management with marine science and management, developing knowledge of the complex environments in which we live and the keys to environmental .
The California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) prepared the Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIR/EIS) for the Fresno to Bakersfield section of the high-speed rail project.
The Final EIR/EIS is being made available. The environment is a complex of biological, geological, physical, chemical, social and cultural factors that interact to influence the life of an individual or community.
Search the Project Ideas Library Science Buddies has over 1, Project Ideas in over 30 areas of science. Search our database of projects for anything you may be looking for. IntRoDUCtIon This document replaces The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and Science, Beginning in September , all science programs for Grades 11 and 12 will be based on the expecta-tions outlined in this document.
The EPA Quality Program provides requirements for conducting quality management activities for all environmental data collection and environmental technology programs performed by or for the Agency.