By 1571 to what extent had

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By 1571 to what extent had

Diocese in the Prussian Province of Westphaliasuffragan of Cologne.

By 1571 to what extent had

It is first mentioned inwhen St. Ludger founded a monastery here, and the place became his see when he was consecrated bishop.

Even at this early date it must have been a place of some importance. These lands, at least in part, lay within the area of the later city.

They were called the Brockhof, the Kampwordeshof, and the Bispinghof. The last-named belonged to the bishop and, probably for this reason, bore his name. The Brockhof was owned by the cathedral chapter, the Kampwordeshof belonged later to the collegiate church of St.

Moritz, to which it was apparently assigned when the church was founded. In the cathedral chapter obtained it by purchase. Near these four estates were quite a number of farms owned independently by free peasants; many of these in the course of time came into the possession of the Church.

The monastery of St. Ludger was placed in the centre of these properties on the ground now surrounding the cathedral. From the beginning the monastery was independent of the jurisdiction of the count. How large a district enjoyed this immunity cannot now be ascertained.

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Neither, for lack of original authorities, can the extent of the guild in which the free peasants were united be positively settled, nor the earliest state of the community and the legal jurisdiction exercised in it. The relation of the bishop to the commune in the early period is not entirely clear, though it is evident that he exercised a certain influence over the affairs of the community.

At first the population was very small: Moritz aboutand St. Lambert after were built. Thus, close to the episcopal castle, that had been built near the minster, there arose an outlying city in which commerce and trade were fairly prosperous, as early as the twelfth century.

A Chronology of Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation in the Sixteenth Century

In the castle was provided with walls, gateways, and a moat. In the twelfth century three more parish churches were built, those of St. Ludgermentioned inSt. By the end of the twelfth century the place was virtually a city, although it cannot be ascertained when the distinctive municipal privileges were secured by it.

From not later than the city formed a separate judicial district, and with this the development into a municipality was essentially complete. In the right of administering the city passed to the bishop and the cathedral chapter. From the thirteenth century these two powers entrusted the exercise of legal jurisdiction to officials ministerialen of the bishop.

From the thirteenth century, in addition to the judge appointed by the bishopthere were city judges, who are first mentioned in They were appointed by the burgomasters from the members of the city council. When court was held they sat by the judge, who was the bishop's appointee in order to guard the interests of the city, but outside of this had not much influence.

The city council acted as a board of assessors in the city court. The extensive commerce of the city rapidly increased its importance. At a later date it joined the confederation of the cities of the Rhine, and about entered the Hanseatic League.

During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries important changes appeared in the government of the city. In medieval times the population consisted of citizens and non-citizens. The citizen body was divided into the ruling patricians, who from the sixteenth century were also called "hereditary proprietors", and the commonalty.

At least the burgomasters and the members of the city council were chosen from a limited number of families. From the fourteenth century the patricians had control of the court of the city; they maintained themselves in the sole ownership of the city government up into the fifteenth century.

The representatives of the city were the burgomasters, first mentioned inand the assessors, mentioned in The members of the consortium individually have had great success financing charter schools with a collective total of Pg.

24 and With the exception of the state assessment data provided from Atlanta, GA (pg. 7), there is no information provided on The extent to which the technical assistance and other services to be provided.

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