A wide range of technologies are employed in support of the justice system, including telephony, database management software, computers, automobiles, and weapons. The adoption and implementation of technology also directly shapes the policies and practices of the justice system.
The era of Enlightenment uncovered a different method of thinking that sought to understand why people exhibited criminal behavior. The establishment of penal codes and a juvenile justice system during the 19th century changed the face of crime and the criminal justice system.
Criminal law during early times was the result of a shift from tribalism—loyalty to a tribe or friends—to feudalism—a societal structure focused on owning land in exchange for labor. In England during the 2nd century BC, the first jail appeared resulting from an increased use of trial and grand jury systems.
Royalty established jails to house individuals retained for criminal violations. Early jailing systems allowed commoners to observe and taunt offenders.
In addition, necessities, such as food or clothing, required payment from the offender; if they could not afford these items, they went without them. The decline of feudalism led to a revision of the justice system during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Criminal justice authorities moved to punish the accused by locking up offenders and forcing them into labor. Despite the difficult conditions, jailers and authorities sought to incorporate rehabilitative methods by delivering the skills necessary to obtain work through forced labor.
Gallery slavery involved the gathering of vagrants and thieves from the streets and the forcing of individuals into lifetime servitude. The United States owes much of its early legal processes to England.
The Enlightenment—a major intellectual movement—spurred change in how people examined human behavior. During the late 18th century, what we consider classic criminological theory fully developed.
In the United States, colonists used religion as a foundation for understanding crime. In addition, slavery contributed significantly to the evolution of criminal law.
In addition, the church and religion began to have less informal control over how citizens conducted their lives. Consequently, the introduction of a new criminal system was required. Police forces for the new republic were not created during the Constitutional Convention in Pennsylvania in Colonists treated crime as sin, but this changed when the new republic came about.
From the midth century to the late 19th century in the United States, the justice system evolved using established legal codes and practices. Jim Crow laws established a method to reconcile slavery of the past.Identify and discuss the five periods of juvenile justice history and which period you think was the most influential to the evolution of the juvenile justice system.
Graham v. Florida () In , the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Graham v. Florida that sentencing a juvenile to life without the possibility of parole for a non-homicidal crime is in violation of the Eighth Amendment. A Brief History of Juvenile Justice Before launching into a discussion of the waiver process and the important issues surrounding the waiver of juveniles to criminal court, a brief description of the goals and.
Briefly discuss the history and evolution of the juvenile justice system. Some contend it is outdated and ineffective. Include at least three milestones in the evolution of the juvenile justice system, and three or more examples of significance of the historical evolution.
The Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System Complete the Unit 8 Assignment: The Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System Write a 1–2 page essay briefly discussing the history and evolution of the juvenile justice system.
Learning Objectives. After reading this chapter, you should be able to Describe the history and evolution of the juvenile justice system in the Western world.